The financing of project imposed itself since several years as an argumentation of development politics. This is not the plethora of writings or the oratorical talent of immeasurable intervening parties that are going to deny it. A remark must be however underlined: the profusion is not always synonymous of quality and sometimes, confusions and half truths that result come out winners.
In practice and it is not necessary to be a specialist to make the report of it, it has three types of project whose aspects are certainly familiar but whose approaches became distended more in light of investigating.
- To the scale of the enterprise, the project connotation belongs to the domain of the strategic planning, an investment, a reorganization project, the project of swing to the ariary.
- To the scale of the enterprise and the state and for a more robust dimension, a project of investment is an element of the politics of development of the government and an element of international strategy of the enterprise. It is the big (leading) international project domain.
- To the scale of States and the international financial institutions, a project is a new approach of the administrative management of the public organisms, public organisation or of entities of the private sector but whose activities are achieved in a general interest objective.
All projects preserve some common objectives nevertheless and that decline themselves in several finalities. These last are real identification cards of projects and permit to delimit respective spheres of adherence, the objectives of a project being constituted of the set of its efficient realizations. Projects can have then like objectives:
- The endowment of new industrial facilities.
- To ensure the supply of raw materials for an enterprise and the development of the regional economy for the state.
- The new school building.
It appears as well as the measure of objectives and results can be unlike. According to the previous examples, some results can be kept:
- The rise of the production capacity that has the effect of raising the turnover and market share the opposite is not also to exclude.
- The availability of raw materials for the enterprise and externalities concerning job creation, infrastructure … for the state.
- The decrease of the illiteracy rate.
Several constants meet in these different boarders of the project as several finalities constitute the main tracks of its identifications. The relationship is certainly indisputable but as the case of Homo sapiens and the Neanderthal man, evolutions didn’t have nor the same size nor the same dimension.
The ambition of the publication is presenting the main facets of the project management, while especially insisting on the component the more fooled: the project finances.
I / ASSESSMENT AND PROJECT FINANCE FINANCING.
The three scales that were kept to measure the project different categories drive to two definitions, them same making take out again the two measurements of the approach project.
- A project is a capital investment, a human resources investment, investment in property and goods whose finality is the answer to a real need / estimable of goods or services marketable or no marketable.
- A project is a management method for set of activities coordinates by a specific structure whose everlastingness is bound to an objective, a set of resources and a constraint of time.
A project is characterized thus by a constant set of:
- A specific financing of which the amount and the length are known in advance.
- A human and material allowance and reallocation resource for the length of the project.
- A management by piloting and an obligation of result.
It shows up well that the technique of project doesn’t limit itself to the traditional domain of the investment theory in enterprises. Certainly the importance of financing as socio economics and environmental impacts seem to justify the intervention of the public element but taking the facts into consideration, two approaches of management by method of projects are retained:
- An enterprise or a public organism particular approach that differentiates itself by rules of management and finalities measured as the creation of a new factory or the civil servants census.
- A participative or concerted project finances approach between the private sector, the public sector and the international institutions. The majority of projects or governmental programs with financial backers are on the other hand to arrange among the classic project drawer.
A parameter permits to distinguish the project finances to the other shapes of projects in where the presence of the public element is taken in consideration: results